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Wednesday, 18-Oct-2017 20:21:36 GMT
Overview of biodiversity and environment in atols and islands

Contents:
  bulletRALIK CHAIN
    bulletUjelang
    bulletEnewetak
    bulletBikini
    bulletRongelap
    bulletRongerik
    bulletAilinginae
    bulletWotho
    bulletUjae
    bulletLae
    bulletKwajelein
    bulletLib
    bulletNamu
    bulletJabot
    bulletAilinglaplap
    bulletJaluit
    bulletKili
    bulletNamdrik
    bulletEbon
    bulletWake (Enenkio)
  bulletRATIK CHAIN
    bulletBokak (Taongi)
    bulletBikar
    bulletUtdrik
    bulletTaka
    bulletMejit
    bulletAiluk
    bulletJemo
    bulletLikiep
    bulletWotje
    bulletErikub
    bulletMaloelap
    bulletAur
    bulletMajuro
    bulletArno
    bulletMili
    bulletNadrikdrik
  bulletREFERENCES

RALIK CHAIN

Name: Ujelang
Area (sq. miles): 0.66
Description of biodiversity: uninhabited; low grassy vegetation; abundant birds; heavily planted with coconuts; Neisosperma rare or absent

Name: Enewetak
Area (sq. miles): 2.25
Description of biodiversity: site of nuclear tests; several islands vaporized; extensively studied in laboratories; many endemics identified (pycnogonids, insects, mantis shrimps, bryozoans, brachiopod, wrasses); home of Micronesian endemic grass Lepturopetium marshallense; monitor lizard introduced; trochus harvest

Name: Bikini
Area (sq. miles): 2.33 (after testing)
Description of biodiversity: only sparsely inhabited; site of nuclear tests; several islands vaporized; vegetation recovered after notably radiation damage; some endemics identified; many sharks; other reports recommend preservation of some smaller islands for long - term observation

Name: Rongelap
Area (sq. miles): 3
Description of biodiversity: essentially uninhabited; received nuclear fallout in 1954; clean-up project began in 1998; many areas of poor sandy soil; some Pisonia woods, many sharks; nesting site for seabirds; other reports recommend scientific investigation on after-effects of radiation

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Name: Rongerik
Area (sq. miles): 0.81
Description of biodiversity: only briefly inhabited from 1946-1948; recovered from nuclear disturbance; 35 species of plants, 26 native; Pisonia and Cordia but affected by radiation; very few coconut trees; environment too severe for human habitation; turtles formerly plentiful; environmental damage due to radioactive fallout in 1954; location of single specimen of endemic fringelip snake eel Cirrhilabrus johnsoni; high diversity in marine habitats; unusual blue coral communities; breeding site of terns and boobies, coconut crabs, green turtles. Other reports recommend any tourism be limited to Rongerik island and subject to environmental impact and radiation studies; protection of Enewetak island for its turtle-breeding and vegetation; protection of Bikkonaton for nesting birds; protection of giant clams; National Reserve

Name: Ailinginae
Area (sq. miles): 1.29
Description of biodiversity: uninhabited; low and dry; some grassy areas; scattered trees. Other reports recommend further scientific study

Name: Wotho
Area (sq. miles): 1.6
Description of biodiversity: remnants of natural vegetation; more remains of purely Marshalls' biodiversity than any other atoll for its size; Neisosperma forest covering large areas; some Pisonia and large areas mixed forests; grasslands; scrubs; damaged by Typhoon Gaye 1992; coconut crabs common; turtle nesting site; bristle-thighed curlews; giant clams; wide variety of fishes; outstanding, large shallow embayment on windward facing ocean reef other reports recommend protection of some sites as National Park for tourism and recreational purposes; special protection for bird breeding islands; research into turtle and coconut crab population

Name: Ujae
Area (sq. miles): 0.62
Description of biodiversity: fairly wet; some native vegetation; Pisonia, Neisosperma and mixed forests; 61 plant species; very complex geomorphology other reports recommend further scientific investigation to see if it warrants planned protection

Name: Lae
Area (sq. miles): 0.6
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop, February 3-4, 1998; smaller islands close together with partial natural vegetation; luxuriant vegetation and diverse flora; rocky areas; Pisonia, Neisosperma and mixed forests other reports recommend further scientific investigation

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Name: Kwajelein
Area (sq. miles): 6.3
Description of biodiversity: very large atoll; larger islands almost completely altered with many exotic species intentionally and accidentally introduced; army base on Kwajelein and Ebeye heavily populated with little vegetation; smaller islands relatively undisturbed with native forest; Lekan island has interior pool; Enewetak island has very fine Pisonia forest, probably protected by taboos; some endemics identified (wrasses, insects); 54 bird species reported; native bird population reduced due to loss of habitat; wintering shorebird number may be increased due to habitat changes; giant clam project

Name: Lib
Area (sq. miles): 0.3
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop, February 10-11,1998; single island; low and sandy with central depression forming freshwater pond surrounded by trees; Sonneratia wetlands, Ophieleotris aporos (fish) in wetlands other reports recommend further scientific investigation

Name: Namu
Area (sq. miles): 2.4
Description of biodiversity: large atoll; Anil Island full of birds with Pisonia forest; extensive Pemphis forest on Loen; Barringtonia forest on northern Namu island; "Ar in Bojar" - wave swept, tidal plain; small commercial fishing operation

Name: Jabot
Area (sq. miles): 0.25
Description of biodiversity: single island; phosphate present; other reports recommend collecting more information on biodiversity

Name: Ailinglaplap
Area (sq. miles): 5.66
Description of biodiversity: large atoll; islands on almost continuous reef rim; suffered considerable damage from Typhoon Paka in 1997; Sonneratia and Brugiera wetlands and Lumnitera depression on Airok; over 100 species of plants; Ophieleotris aporos and Sphaeramia orbicularis (fishes) in mangrove areas; home of native pigeon Ducula oceanica oceanica; some of finest tall branching corals in Marshalls; other reports and investigators recommend the protection of branching corals, perhaps as marine park; protection of native pigeon

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Name: Jaluit
Area (sq. miles): 1.4
Description of biodiversity: former German and Japanese administrative center; well studied; many exotic plants introduced but few survived; almost continuous land rim with some deep passes; badly damaged in 1958 by Typhoon Ophelia; Sonneratia wetlands on Jaluit island; extensive Pemphis forests; home of native pigeon Ducula oceanica oceanica; soil brought in from other areas outside of the Marshalls; other reports and investigators recommend follow-up scientific studies on typhoon recovery; protection of native pigeon

Name: Kili
Area (sq. miles): 0.33
Description of biodiversity: single island; resettlement population of Bikinians; small brackish pond and freshwater depression; not likely any native vegetation or land animals

Name: Namdrik
Area (sq. miles): 1.0
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop, September 11-12, 1998; two main islands; Sonneratia wetlands on Madmid; Ophieleotris aporos (fish) in wetlands; home of native pigeon Ducula oceanica oceanica, greater part of reef occupied by wide islands; no natural passage into lagoon; black pearl oyster project other reports and investigators recommend scientific investigation; protection of native pigeon

Name: Ebon
Area (sq. miles): 2.25
Description of biodiversity: dense tree growth of coconuts, pandanus, breadfruit, and Casuarina; native purple-capped fruit-dove completely killed off; some phosphate deposits; high rainfall; lush vegetation; one Guettarda speciosa tree on Toka island with oddly-shaped leaves and a sedge reportedly found nowhere else

Name: Wake (Enenkio)
Area (sq. miles): 2.5
Description of biodiversity: under United States administration; home of endemic grass Lepturus gassparicensis; very little original vegetation remaining; endemic rail, Gallirallus wakensis, now extinct; variety of cotton of unknown origin but unknown elsewhere; devastated by military use and civilian occupation

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RATIK CHAIN

Name: Bokak (Taongi)
Area (sq. miles): 1.25
Description of biodiversity: previously "mo," uninhabited; landing difficult; low and dry; semi-desert; very stony with old reef conglomerate; only 9 species of flowering plants; 6 vegetation types; home of endemic grass Lepturus gassparicensis; Tournefortia scrub; large bird colonies of 20 species; one of finest rookeries in central Pacific enormous bird populations; possibly only example of a completely unaltered semi-arid atoll ecosystem remaining in the world totally free of exotic plants; may serve as future reservoir from which colonization of birds could take place; nesting site for green turtles; least disturbed of Marshalls; lagoon shallow, not exceeding 100 feet with many coral heads; water level in lagoon averages 1.5 feet higher than ocean; narrow passage, so at ebb tides, water rushes out like a waterfall; unique algal rim on lagoon shore protected during Trust Territory Administration; other reports recommend complete protection again as a National Preserve saying it is an appropriate "crown jewel" of Marshalls if system of natural areas is implemented

Name: Bikar
Area (sq. miles): 0.2
Description of biodiversity: previously "mo"; uninhabited; low and dry; dense Pisonia forest; some Tournefortia and herbaceous plants; 9 species of vascular land plants; important seabird rookery; outstanding as breeding ground for green sea turtle; possibly one hawksbill turtle nesting site once located; 18 species of birds protected under Trust Territory Administration; other reports recommend protection again as National Preserve; nominated as World Heritage Site; coral reefs worthy of protection

Name: Utdrik
Area (sq. miles): 0.2
Description of biodiversity: some native scrub forest; 49 plant species; some damage from typhoon 1951, but fairly well recovered; exposed to nuclear fallout in 1954; recently increased number of weeds

Name: Taka
Area (sq. miles): 1.32
Description of biodiversity: uninhabited; low, dry, scrubby forest with low shrub and grass; 23 vascular land plant species; 1/3 of area covered by coconut forest; large sooty tern colony; nesting site for green turtles; underwater visited by hawksbill turtle; former pantry for giant clams, turtles, fishes and birds; visiting pectoral sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, Jaeger reported; other reports recommend protection as National Park with small-scale environmentally minded tourist activities; protection of giant clams and turtles

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Name: Mejit
Area (sq. miles): 0.7
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop March 31-April 7, 1998; single island; small pond in center linked to sea by channel lined by Brugiera; stopover for migratory ducks; Laysan albatross reported; 17 species of land vascular plants; well cultivated with coconuts and breadfruit; yellowfin tuna regularly caught from on shore; other reports recommend further study of inlet and broad reef

Name: Ailuk
Area (sq. miles): 2.07
Description of biodiversity: main island almost entirely covered by coconut plantations; 55 land vascular plant species; constant wind-exposure a controlling ecological factor; birds common but not abundant; corals abundant, varied and beautiful

Name: Jemo
Area (sq. miles): 0.06
Description of biodiversity: single island; possible fragment of a former atoll; moderate rainfall; 38 land vascular plant species, about half native; very large Pisonia trees used for phosphate study; site of original studies on the origin of atoll phosphate; namesake of jemo soil; abundant birds; breeding place for green turtles; taboo in pre-European times; functional turtle sanctuary; 14 bird species reported; 10 possibly breeding; evidence of owl found; other reports recommend protection as a Wildlife Reserve/Sanctuary for nesting turtles; research into green turtle nesting activity as part of conservation program

Name: Likiep
Area (sq. miles): 4
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop, April 22-30,1998; extensively cultivated with coconuts; 81 species of vascular land plants; many exotics not found on other atolls; giant clam farm; green turtle headstart project other report suggests that eastern point of Likiep Island might provide information on geomorphological history

Name: Wotje
Area (sq. miles): 3.16
Description of biodiversity: large atoll; some grassy vegetation; interior freshwater lake; large deep lagoon; much destruction in World War II; RMI endangered Ratak Micronesian pigeon Ducula oceanica ratakensis was killed off after war; monitor lizard introduced; local produce grown for export market other authority suggests reintroduction of endangered native pigeon

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Name: Erikub
Area (sq. miles): 0.6
Description of biodiversity: uninhabited but frequently visited; vegetation scanty with some remaining forest; low scrub forest; coconuts; 37 species of land vascular plants with 27 native; interior of some islands mixed Intsia and Pisonia forest with unusual bird's nest fern understory on the ground which could be unique, deep lagoon with unusually steep drop-offs; pantry atoll for Wotje; no known water supply; bristle-thighed curlew and snow goose recorded (the only Micronesian sighting); nesting site of green turtles other reports recommend some protection as Nature Reserve of some islands and reefs; Eneko island as Wildlife Reserve; monitoring of turtles, clams and reef fishes, coconut crab populations with development and implementation of plan for sustainable harvesting; total moratorium on turtle harvesting

Name: Maloelap
Area (sq. miles): 3.81
Description of biodiversity: extensively built up by Japanese; damaged during World War II; some scrub forests; more luxuriantly vegetated than most of Marshalls; "Buojiap" a famous coral outcropping on western reef

Name: Aur
Area (sq. miles): 2.17
Description of biodiversity: some remnants of native vegetation, Pisonia, Neisosperma; monitor lizard introduced by Japanese, short-range missile launching site on Bikan

Name: Majuro
Area (sq. miles): 3.5
Description of biodiversity: atoll biodiversity workshop, February 24-25, 1998; capital atoll of RMI; densely populated, especially in downtown areas; some native vegetation remaining, some even downtown, but mostly on northern islands not connected by roads; many introduced species coconut plantations; pestiferous insects and invasive plant species; RMI endangered Ratak Micronesian pigeon, Ducula oceanica ratakensis extirpated; downtown lagoon reefs stressed; downtown (Delap) mangroves almost gone; constantly new weeds and invasives recorded other reports and authorities recommend study of northern islands; reintroduction of endangered pigeon

Name: Arno
Area (sq. miles): 5
Description of biodiversity: large atoll, over 100 islands, extensively studied during Coral Atoll Project of 1950-1952; best studied of Marshalls; 129 plant species (1952); home of RMI endangered Ratak Micronesian pigeon Ducula oceanica ratakensis (type locality); Brugiera mangrove wetlands in the south; Sonneratia mangrove wetlands in the north; origin of hybrid mourning gecko; fisheries project; black-lip pearl oyster farm other authority recommends reintroduction of endangered pigeon into portion of its range it is no longer found

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Name: Mili
Area (sq. miles): 6
Description of biodiversity: large atoll, over 90 islands; home of RMI endangered Ratak Micronesian pigeon Ducula oceanica ratakensis; Sonneratia mangrove wetlands; giant clam farms

Name: Nadrikdrik
Area (sq. miles): 0.38
Description of biodiversity: uninhabited but periodically visited; small sub-atoll off Mili; very wet with 160 inches of rain annually, almost unknown scientifically


REFERENCES

National Biodiversity Team of the RMI, 2000. The Marshall Islands - Living Atols Amidst the Living Sea/ The National Biodiversity Report of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. © RMI Biodiversity Project. ISBN 982-9045-02-1, St. Hildegard Publishing Company, Santa Clarita, CA, USA.

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Amerson, A. Binion Jr., 1969. Ornithology of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 127, pp. 1-348

Baker, Rollin H., 1951. The Avifauna of Micronesia, its Origin, Evolution and Distribution. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

Bendure, Glenda and Ned Friary, 1995. Micronesia. Lonely Planet Publications, Hawthorn, Australia

Blumenstock, David I. (ed), 1961. A report on typhoon effects upon Jaluit Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 75, pp. 1-105

Bryan, E. H. Jr., 1971. Guide to Place Names of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii

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Clapp, R. B., 1990. Notes on the Birds of Kwajelein Atoll, Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 342, pp. 1-94

Clark, Raymond P., 1992. Ongoing marine, coastal and fishery resource development in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and related Pacific Island Network activities for 1991. Pacific Island Network Meeting, Majuro, Marshall Islands

Curtsinger, Bill, 1995. Close Encounters with the Gray Reef Shark. National Geographic, Vol. 187, No. 1, pp. 45-67

Dawson, Andrew, 1993. Aquaculture Development Project in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Consultants Report No. 3

Douglas, Gina, 1969. Pacific Island Check List. Micronesica, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 327-464

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Fosberg F. Raymond, 1966. Northern Marshall Islands land biota: birds. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 114, pp. 1-35

_________, 1990. A Review of the Natural History of the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 330, pp. 1-100

Harris, Larry G. Steven Searcy, Gregg Stevens and Michele Sleeter, 1994. A Comparison of Fish Populations and Reef Structure in Majuro Atoll Lagoon, Republic of the Marshall Islands. University of New Hamsphire, Durham, New Hampshire

Hatheway, William H., 1953. The Land Vegetation of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 16, pp. 1-67 Marshall Islands Guidebook, 1996. Micronitor Printing, Majuro, Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Journal, various news stories. Majuro, Marshall Islands

Merlin, Mark, Alfred Capelle, Thomas Keene, James Juvik and James Maragos, 1994. Keinikkan im Melan Aelon Kein; Plants and Environments of the Marshall Island. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii

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Myers, Robert F, 1989. Micronesian Reef Fishes. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam

Nafus, Donald M., 1997. An Insect Survey of the Marshall Islands, Technical Paper, No. 208, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia

Sabath, Michael D., 1977. Vegetation and Urbanization on Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands. Pacific Science, Vol. 31 (4), pp.321-333

Scott, DerekA.(ed), 1993. A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania. The International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau and Asian Wetland Bureau

Thomas, P. E. J. (ed.), 1989. Report of the Northern Marshall Islands Natural Diversity and Protected Areas Survey, 7-24 September 1988. South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme, Noumea, New Caledonia; East West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii

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Tobin, J. E., 1952. Land Tenure in the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 11, pp. 1-36

VanderVelde, Nancy, 1999. Rongelap, Before and After. Pacific Magazine, Jan./Feb., pg. 42

personal communication with islanders when visiting various atolls

personal communication with Pratt, H. Douglas

personal observations

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biodiversity workshops

 
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bulletHOME bullet NEWSbullet OVERVIEW OF LOCAL BIODIVERSITY bullet NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION bullet NATIONAL INITIATIVES bullet PUBLICATIONS bullet THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY bullet RMI NATURAL RESOURCES DATABASE:[ Search the database ::: you are hereOverview of Atols and Islands ::: Brief Overwiew of Flora ::: Brief Overview of Fauna ::: Native Vascular Plants of the Marshalls ::: Plants of the Marshall Islands ::: Snails of the Marshall Islands ::: Arachnids and Myriapods of the Marshall Islands ::: Insects of the Marshall Islands ::: Fishes of the Marshall Islands ::: Reptiles and Amphibians of the Marshall Islands ::: Birds of the Marshall Islands ::: Mammals of the Marshall Islands ::: Ecosystems of Marshall Islands ::: Species Deemed Worthy for Conservation ::: Protected Species ::: Endemic Species and Subspecies of the Marshalls and Micronesia ::: Endemic Species of the Marshalls ::: Some Pestiferous and Potentially Pestiferous Species ] bullet MISC. DATASETS AND MAPSbullet PARTNERS AND LINKS bullet CONTACTS bullet FEEDBACK bullet COPYRIGHT bullet ACCESSIBILITY bullet DISCLAIMER bullet PRIVACY bullet
©RMI Office of Environmental Planning and Policy Coordination (OEPPC)| Last update: Thursday, 2 October 2008

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