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Wednesday, 18-Oct-2017 20:17:17 GMT
Animals and Plants of the Marshall Islands Deemed Worthy of Conservation Considerations
(species and subspecies that have been found in he Marshalls and have been listed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands, international organizations and nearby countries)
Hawaiian monk seal drawing  Nancy Vander Velde

Contents:
  bulletDEFINITIONS OF TERMS (agency defining):
  bulletLISTING OF SPECIES:
  bulletPLANTAE (kingdom of PLANTS)
  bulletANIMALIA (kingdom of ANIMALS)
    bulletCOELENTERATA (CNIDARIANS)
    bulletMOLUSCA (MOLLUSKS)
    bulletARTHROPODA (ARTHROPODS)
    bulletPISCES (FISHES)
    bulletREPTILIA (REPTILES)
    bulletAVES (BIRDS)
    bulletMAMMALIA (MAMMALS)
  bulletREFERENCES



DEFINITIONS OF TERMS (agency defining):

EXTINCT (IUCN) - "A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died".

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (IUCN) - A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future."

ENDANGERED SPECIES (RMI Endangered Species Act) - any species [any species or subspecies] which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range"

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ENDANGERED (IUCN) - A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future."

ENDANGERED (US Fish and Wildlife) - any species, subspecies, or distinct population of fish or wildlife, or plant which is in danger of extinction through all or a significant portion of its range"

THREATENED SPECIES (RMI Endangered Species Act) - any species [any species or subspecies] which is likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range"

THREATENED (US Fish and Wildlife) - any species, subspecies, or distinct population of fish or wildlife, or plant which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range"

SPECIES OF CONCERN (US Fish and Wildlife) - The terms 'Species at Risk' or 'Species of Concern' should be considered as terms-of-art that describe the entire realm of taxa whose conservation status may be of concern to the Service, but neither term has official status."

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VULNERABLE (IUCN) - A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future."

RARE (IUCN RED DATA BOOK) - Taxa with small world populations that are not at present 'Endangered' or 'Vulnerable,' but are at risk. These taxa are usually localized within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range."

LOWER RISK (IUCN) - A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated, does not satisfy the criteria for any of the categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Taxa included in Lower Risk category can be separated into three sub-categories:

1. Conservation Dependent. Taxa are the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme targeted towards the taxon in question, the cessation of which would result in the taxon qualifying one of the threatened categories above within a period of five years.

2. Near Threatened. Taxa which do not qualify for Conservation Dependent, but which are close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

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3. Least Concern. Taxa which do not qualify for Conservation Dependent or Near Threatened.

COMMERCIALLY THREATENED (IUCN RED DATA BOOK) - Taxa not currently threatened with extinction but most or all of whose populations are threatened as a sustainable commercial resource, or will become so unless their exploitation is regulated. This category applies only to taxa whose populations are assumed to be relatively large."

DATA DEFICIENT (IUCN) - A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution is lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat or Lower Risk. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data is available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD [Data Deficient] and threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, if a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.

NOT EVALUATED - "A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been assessed against the criteria."

LISTING OF SPECIES:

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PLANTAE (kingdom of PLANTS)

Tthe only plants would be those listed in C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II that are of recent introduction for ornamental purposes - Cactus spp., Cycas family, Aloe spp. and fleshy Euphorbia spp.

ANIMALIA (kingdom of ANIMALS)

COELENTERATA (CNIDARIANS)

Scientific name: All species of coral except those listed separately
English name: all corals
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix 11

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Scientific name: Heliopora spp.
English name: Blue coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Tubipora
English name: Organ pipe coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Order Antipatharia

Scientific name: Family Antipathidae
English name: black coral
Status and agency: COMMERCIALLY THREATENED - C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: All species of the Order Scleractinia (stony corals) except the following listed separately:
English name: stony coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

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Scientific name: Acropora spp.
English name: Staghorn coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Euphyllia spp.
English name: Trumpet coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Favia spp.
English name: Brain coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Fungia spp,
English name: Mushroom coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Halomitra spp.
English name: Bowl coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

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Scientific name: Lobophyllia spp.
English name: Brain coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Merulina spp.
English name: Merlina
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Pavona spp.
English name: Cactus coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Pectinia spp.
English name: Lettuce coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Platygyra spp.
English name: Brain coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

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Scientific name: Pocillopora spp.
English name: Brush coral, antler coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Polyphyllia spp.
English name: Feather coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Seriatopora spp.
English name: Birds nest coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Stylophora spp.
English name: Cauliflower coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Millepora spp.
English name: Fire coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

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Scientific name: All species in Stylansteridae
English name: Lace coral
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix 11

MOLUSCA (MOLLUSKS)

Scientific name: Paludinella semperi
English name: Land snail
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

Scientific name: Papina companata
English name: Land snail
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

Scientific name: Tmncatella guerinii
English name: Land snail
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

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Scientific name: Charonia tritonis
English name: Triton's trumpet
Status and agency: RARE - IUCN

Scientific name: All species of giant clams except those listed earlier [in time] and separately
English name: all species of giant clam
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

Scientific name: Hippopus hippopus
English name: Bear paw clam, horse hoof
Status and agency: LOWER RISK - (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Tridacna derasa
English name: Southern giant clam
Status and agency: VULNERABLE - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (this species was recently introduced into the Marshalls for aquaculture purposes)

Scientific name: Tridacna gigas
English name: Giant clam
Status and agency: VULNERABLE - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II

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Scientific name: Tridacna maxima
English name: Small giant clam
Status and agency: LOWER RISK - (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN;

Scientific name: Tridacna squamosa
English name: Fluted giant clam
Status and agency: LOWER RISK - (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix 11 (as noted above)

ARTHROPODA (ARTHROPODS)

Scientific name: Birgus latro
English name: Coconut crab
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

PISCES (FISHES)

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Scientific name: Rhincodon typus
English name: Whale shark
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

Scientific name: Carcharodon carcharias
English name: Great white shark
Status and agency: VULNERABLE - IUCN

Scientific name: Carcharhinus limatus
English name: Blacktip shark
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (near threatened) - IUCN

Scientific name: Sphyrnidae spp.
English name: Hammerhead shark
Status and agency: NOT EVALUATED - IUCN

Scientific name: Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus
English name: Banded pipefish
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN

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REPTILIA (REPTILES)

Scientific name: Cheloniidae family
English name: All sea turtles
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I

Scientific name: Chelonia mydas
English name: Green turtle
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - IUCN, RMI; THREATENED - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I (as noted above)

Scientific name: Carefta caretta
English name: Loggerhead turtle
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - Hawaii; THREATENED - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I (as noted above)

Scientific name: Eretmochelys imbricata
English name: Hawksbill turtle
Status and agency: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED - IUCN; ENDANGERED - RMI, U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I (as noted above)

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Scientific name: Lepidochelys olivacea
English name: Pacific Ridley turtle
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - IUCN; THREATENED - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I

Scientific name: Dermochelys coriacea
English name: Leatherback turtle
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - RMI, IUCN; THREATENED - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I (as noted above)

Scientific name: Varanus spp.
English name: Monitor lizard
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (the mangrove monitor, Varanus indicus, was imported to the Marshall; within the recent past)

AVES (BIRDS)

Scientific name: Diomedea albatrus
English name: Short-tailed Albatross
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - IUCN, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I

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Scientific name: Puffinus bulleri
English name: Buller's Shearwater
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Near-Threatened) - IUCN

Scientific name: Oceanodroma castro
English name: Band-rumped Storm-petrel
Status and agency: SPECIES OF SPECIAL CONCERN - Hawaii

Scientific name: Gallirallus wakensis
English name: Wake Rail
Status and agency: EXTINCT - IUCN

Scientific name: Nemenius tahitiensis
English name: Bristle-thighed Curlew
Status and agency: VULNERABLE - IUCN; SPECIES OP SPECIAL CONCERN - Hawaii

Scientific name: Ducula oceanica ratakensis
English name: Ratak Micronesian Pigeon
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - RMI; SPECIES OF SPECIAL CONCERN - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; EXTINCT on Wotje and Majuro (according to islanders)

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MAMMALIA (MAMMALS)

Scientific name: Cetacea
English name: All cetaceans
Status and agency: C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (unless in Appendix I)

Scientific name: Balaenoptera borealis
English name: Sei whale
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - IUCN, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Balaenoptera edeni
English name: Bryde's whale
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Balaenoptera musculus
English name: Blue whale
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - RMI, IUCN, U.S. Fish and Wildlife; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I

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Scientific name: Megaptera novaengliae
English name: Humpback whale
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - U.S. Fish and Wildlife; VULNERABLE - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix I

Scientific name: Physeter macrocephalus = catodon?
English name: Sperm whale
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - RMI, U.S. Pish and Wildlife; VULNERABLE - IUCN

Scientific name: Feresa attenuata
English name: Pygmy killer whale
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Orcinus orca
English name: Killer whale
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Globicephala macrorhynchus
English name: Short-finned pilot whale
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

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Scientific name: Lagenodelphis hosei
English name: Eraser's dolphin
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Grampus griseus
English name: Risson's dolphin
Status and agency: DATA DEFICIENT - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Stenella longirostris
English name: Spinner dolphin
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

Scientific name: Stenella coeruleoalba
English name: Striped dolphin
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN;

Scientific name: Stenella attenuata
English name: Pantropical spotted dolphin
Status and agency: LOWER RISK (Conservation Dependent) - IUCN; C.I.T.E.S. Appendix II (as noted above)

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Scientific name: Monochus schauinslandi
English name: Hawaiian monk seal
Status and agency: ENDANGERED - IUCN, Hawaii, U.S. Fish and Wildlife


REFERENCES

National Biodiversity Team of the RMI, 2000. The Marshall Islands - Living Atols Amidst the Living Sea/ The National Biodiversity Report of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. © RMI Biodiversity Project. ISBN 982-9045-02-1, St. Hildegard Publishing Company, Santa Clarita, CA, USA.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland Switzerland

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____________ 1994.IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland Switzerland

____________ 1998. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals; Database Search Results. IUCN website

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a. PACIFIC ISLANDS (excluding Hawai'i) PLANTS AND ANIMALS: Updated March 1, 1996, Listed, Proposed or Candidate Species, as designated under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996b. Candidates of Endangered Species Act Protection - 1996 Notice of Review. Q's & A's.

 
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bulletHOME bullet NEWSbullet OVERVIEW OF LOCAL BIODIVERSITY bullet NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION bullet NATIONAL INITIATIVES bullet PUBLICATIONS bullet THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY bullet RMI NATURAL RESOURCES DATABASE:[ Search the database ::: Overview of Atols and Islands ::: Brief Overwiew of Flora ::: Brief Overview of Fauna ::: Native Vascular Plants of the Marshalls ::: Plants of the Marshall Islands ::: Snails of the Marshall Islands ::: Arachnids and Myriapods of the Marshall Islands ::: Insects of the Marshall Islands ::: Fishes of the Marshall Islands ::: Reptiles and Amphibians of the Marshall Islands ::: Birds of the Marshall Islands ::: Mammals of the Marshall Islands ::: Ecosystems of Marshall Islands ::: you are hereSpecies Deemed Worthy for Conservation ::: Protected Species ::: Endemic Species and Subspecies of the Marshalls and Micronesia ::: Endemic Species of the Marshalls ::: Some Pestiferous and Potentially Pestiferous Species ] bullet MISC. DATASETS AND MAPSbullet PARTNERS AND LINKS bullet CONTACTS bullet FEEDBACK bullet COPYRIGHT bullet ACCESSIBILITY bullet DISCLAIMER bullet PRIVACY bullet
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