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Republic of the Marshall Islands Biodiversity Clearing House Mechanism
RMI Office of Environmental Planning and Policy Coordination (OEPPC)

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Some Pestiferous and Potentially Pestiferous Species
Black crazy ant drawing  Nancy Vander Velde
Contents:
  bulletPLANT/ANIMAL DISEASES
  bulletFUNGUS
  bulletALGAE
  bulletCORAL DISEASES
  bulletVASCULAR PLANTS
  bulletANIMALS
    bulletCOELENTERATA (CNIDARIANS)
    bulletPLATHELMINTHES (FLAT WORMS)
    bulletNEMATODA
    bulletARTHROPODA (ARTHROPODS)
      bulletARACHNIDA
      bulletINSECTA (INSECTS)
    bulletMOLUSCA
    bulletPISCES (FISHES)
    bulletAMPHIBIA
    bulletREPTILIA
    bulletAVES (BIRDS)
    bulletMAMMALIA
  bulletREFERENCES

PLANT/ANIMAL DISEASES

Scientific and/or common name: mosaic virus
Target/host species or why a pest: taro
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: removal of infected plants

Scientific and/or common name: cucumber mosaic virus
Target/host species or why a pest: pumpkin
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: insecticides, crop hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Xanthomanas campestris (bacteria canker)
Target/host species or why a pest: citrus
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: crop hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Xanthomanas campestris manihotis (bacterial blight)
Target/host species or why a pest: cassava
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: disease free plants, crop rotation

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FUNGUS

Scientific and/or common name: Many species of sooty mold
Target/host species or why a pest: many crops
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: insecticides

Scientific and/or common name: Bipolaris incurvata (leaf spot of seedlings)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconuts
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: improved cultural conditions, fungicides

Scientific and/or common name: Cercospora ipomoeae (leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: kangkong
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls (on Ipomoea)
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: crop rotation, hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Cercospora taccae
Target/host species or why a pest: Polynesian arrowroot
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, other Pacific islands
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

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Scientific and/or common name: Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern leaf blight)
Target/host species or why a pest: corn
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not reported
Control measures employed or suggested: resistant varieties

Scientific and/or common name: Corynespora cassiicola (leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: cucurbits, papaya
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Elsinoe batatas (scab)
Target/host species or why a pest: sweet potato
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: fungicides, crop sanitation

Scientific and/or common name: Elsinoe fawcetti (common scab)
Target/host species or why a pest: citrus
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: fungicides, crop sanitation

Scientific and/or common name: Elsinoe sacchari (white rash)
Target/host species or why a pest: sugar cane
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

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Scientific and/or common name: Glomerella cingulata (dieback, fruit rot)
Target/host species or why a pest: guava, yams, papaya, mango, other fruit
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: plant hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Marasmiellus inoderma (pseudostem rot)
Target/host species or why a pest: banana, taro, coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: plant hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Mycosphaerella alocasiae (small round leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: taro
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (black sigatoka, black leaf streak)
Target/host species or why a pest: banana
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: fungicides in emulsions, resistant cultivars

Scientific and/or common name: Mycosphaerella henningsii (brown leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: cassava
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: fungicides, plant spacing

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Scientific and/or common name: Mycosparella spp.
Target/host species or why a pest: Polynesian arrowroot
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: unstated
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Neojohstonia colocasiae (orange leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: taro
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Oidium sp. (powdery mildew)
Target/host species or why a pest: pumpkins, squash
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: resistant cultivars, fungicides

Scientific and/or common name: Pestalotiopsis palmarum (grey leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: improved growing conditions for plants

Scientific and/or common name: Phytophthora colasasiae (leaf blight)
Target/host species or why a pest: taro
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: plant hygiene

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Scientific and/or common name: Phytophthora sp. (seedling blight)
Target/host species or why a pest: sweet orange
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Kosrae
Control measures employed or suggested: fungicides, plant hygiene

Scientific and/or common name: Pseudocercospora timorensis (leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: sweet potato
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: crop rotation

Scientific and/or common name: Pseudocercospora sp. (leaf blotch)
Target/host species or why a pest: breadfruit
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia. Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Pseudoepicoccum cocus (brown leaf spot)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: improved growing conditions for plants

Scientific and/or common name: Rhizoctonia sp. (pre- and post- emergence damping-off, root, stem, and leaf rot, web blight)
Target/host species or why a pest: many crops
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: chemical treatment of soil, crop spacing

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Scientific and/or common name: Uromyces vignae (rust)
Target/host species or why a pest: beans, sea beans
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: crop hygiene, fungicides

ALGAE

Scientific and/or common name: Cephaleuros virenscens (algal leaf spot, red rust)
Target/host species or why a pest: many crops
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: improved cultural conditions

CORAL DISEASES

Scientific and/or common name: Porites line disease
Target/host species or why a pest: boulder corals
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: other areas in Pacific and Indian Oceans?
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

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Scientific and/or common name: Smothering sponges
Target/host species or why a pest: many coral species
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: other areas Pacific, Indian Oceans
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Fungal/bacterial/ algal mats (several types)
Target/host species or why a pest: many coral species
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: other areas Pacific, Indian Oceans
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

VASCULAR PLANTS

Scientific and/or common name: Paspalum diticum (salt grass - introduced as soil stabilizer)
Target/host species or why a pest: taro cultivation
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Likiep
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: unstated
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Casuarina equistrifolia
Target/host species or why a pest: competes directly with Scaevola, which is sand binder and provides nesting grounds for certain albatrosses: provides opening for rats to do damage
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: most atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: worldwide tropics
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

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Scientific and/or common name: Miconia calvensens ("purple plague")
Target/host species or why a pest: over takes native vegetation
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Jaluit (did not survive)
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Polynesia
Control measures employed or suggested: careful removal, quarantine

Scientific and/or common name: Antigonon leptopus (chain-of-love)
Target/host species or why a pest: over takes other vegetation
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Jaluit (did not survive), Kwajelein
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam, Pohnpei, other Pacific Islands
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

Scientific and/or common name: Lantana camara
Target/host species or why a pest: becomes a pest
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: some atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: high islands in Pacific, major pest
Control measures employed or suggested: none for Marshalls, biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Bidens pilosa
Target/host species or why a pest: overtakes disturbed areas
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, other atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: pantropical
Control measures employed or suggested: careful weed removal; removal of seeds from clothing to control spread

Scientific and/or common name: Other invasive plants (see complete listing of plants)
Target/host species or why a pest: many species and environments
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: all atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: all areas worldwide
Control measures employed or suggested: variable

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ANIMALS

COELENTERATA (CNIDARIANS)

Scientific and/or common name: Various species of hydroids
Target/host species or why a pest: fouling of boat bottoms, other surfaces
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Enewetak, other atolls?
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: cosmopolitan
Control measures employed or suggested: scraping

PLATHELMINTHES (FLAT WORMS)

Scientific and/or common name: Platydemus manokwari (predatory planarian worm)
Target/host species or why a pest: can cause extinction of native snail
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam, Hawaii, other Pacific Islands
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

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NEMATODA

Scientific and/or common name: Meloidogyne species (root-knot nemotode worms)
Target/host species or why a pest: vegetables
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Kiribati, Tuvalu
Control measures employed or suggested: Solutions tested so far have had side-effects or are ineffective; RMI, Trust Territory quarantine

ARTHROPODA (ARTHROPODS)

ARACHNIDA

Scientific and/or common name: Tetranychus species (spider mites)
Target/host species or why a pest: wide variety of plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: miticide; biological control

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Scientific and/or common name: ?Polyphagotarsonemus latus (mite virescense)
Target/host species or why a pest: green peppers
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: miticide

INSECTA (INSECTS)

Scientific and/or common name: Musa sorbens (and other filth flies)
Target/host species or why a pest: disease vectors
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: worldwide
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Oriental fruit fly
Target/host species or why a pest: many plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: RMI Trust Territory quarantine

Scientific and/or common name: Mediterranean fruit fly
Target/host species or why a pest: many plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: RMI, Trust Territory quarantine

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Scientific and/or common name: melon fly
Target/host species or why a pest: plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: RMI, Trust Territory quarantine

Scientific and/or common name: cottony cushion scale
Target/host species or why a pest: many plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: RMI, Trust Territory quarantine

Scientific and/or common name: serpintine leafminer
Target/host species or why a pest: many plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: RMI, Trust Territory quarantine

Scientific and/or common name: Aleurodictus dispersus (spiraling whitefly)
Target/host species or why a pest: over 100 species of plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Anoplolepis gracilipes (long-legged ant)
Target/host species or why a pest: causes sea birds to abandon nests, destroys crabs, native vegetation
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Jaluit, Ailinglaplap
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Hawaii (has destroyed endemic spiders), other Indo-Pacific islands
Control measures employed or suggested: pesticides

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Scientific and/or common name: Aonidiella inornata (inornate scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: papaya
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: widely distributed
Control measures employed or suggested: malathion

Scientific and/or common name: Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconuts, many other food crops
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Likiep
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: widely distributed
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantine, biological control, chemical agents

Scientific and/or common name: Bactrocera frauenfeldi (mango fruitfly)
Target/host species or why a pest: ripe breadfruit
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Marshalls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: export quarantine, general sanitation

Scientific and/or common name: Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: insecticides

Scientific and/or common name: Dysmicoccous cocotis (mealybug)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut, pandanus
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Lae, Ailinglaplap, Jaluit
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: widespread
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

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Scientific and/or common name: Furcaspis oceanica (coconut red scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Jaluit, many others
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control, malathion

Scientific and/or common name: Icerya egyptiaca (Egyptian fluted scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: breadfruit, ornamentals
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Jaluit
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia, elsewhere
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Oryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Palau
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantine, biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Palmicultor palmarum
Target/host species or why a pest: coconut
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, other atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

Scientific and/or common name: Pseudocoocus orchidicola (orchid mealybug)
Target/host species or why a pest: pandanus
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Jaluit, most atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: South Pacific
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

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Scientific and/or common name: Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: peppers, plumeria
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Jaluit
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: not stated
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Pulvinaria urbicola (urbicola soft scale)
Target/host species or why a pest: peppers, plumeria
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Majuro, Jaluit
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Federated States of Micronesia (originally from Caribbean)
Control measures employed or suggested: biological control

Scientific and/or common name: many other insects (see database theme of insects)
Target/host species or why a pest: many species
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: many atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: many areas worldwide
Control measures employed or suggested: variable

MOLUSCA

Scientific and/or common name: Actina fulica (giant African snail)
Target/host species or why a pest: food crops, flower gardens; shells may add so much calcium to soil as to change pH levels; can eat stucco off of buildings in search of calcium
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: Laura (Majuro)
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam. Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Marianas, Polynesia, elsewhere
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantines (chemical and biological controls are entirely ineffective and can cause their own problems)

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Scientific and/or common name: Eugladina rosea
Target/host species or why a pest: prime cause of extinction of native snails in Polynesia
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Polynesia (was introduced in an attempt to control Actina fulica)
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantines, removal

PISCES (FISHES)

Scientific and/or common name: Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish)
Target/host species or why a pest: wipes out native fishes and other aquatic species
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: many locations
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: worldwide
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantines, removal

Scientific and/or common name: Sarotherodon mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia and other tilapia species)
Target/host species or why a pest: competes with native species
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Hawaii, Fanning Island, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantine, predatory fishes

AMPHIBIA

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Scientific and/or common name: Bufo marinus (cane toad)
Target/host species or why a pest: voraciously devours anything it can fit into its mouth
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: no breeding population recorded
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Hawaii, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

REPTILIA

Scientific and/or common name: Carlia fusca (skink)
Target/host species or why a pest: destroys native lizards
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam
Control measures employed or suggested: none stated

Scientific and/or common name: Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake)
Target/host species or why a pest: destroys native birds, lizards
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: no breeding population recorded
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam
Control measures employed or suggested: electric fences, removal, quarantines

AVES (BIRDS)

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Scientific and/or common name: Acridotheres tristis and other myna bird species
Target/host species or why a pest: competes with native birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: introduced to Kwajelein, did not survive
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Hawaii, Fiji, other Pacific islands
Control measures employed or suggested: quarantines, removal

Scientific and/or common name: Passer domesticus (house sparrow)
Target/host species or why a pest: detrimental to native birds, plants
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: introduced to Kwajelein, did not survive
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: Guam, Hawaii, other islands
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

MAMMALIA

Scientific and/or common name: Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus (rats)
Target/host species or why a pest: thought to have reduced the numbers of Micronesia pigeons by raiding nest, also Wake rail; harmful to Scaevola, would it establish on Bokak it will have "catastrophic" effects on birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: almost all islands
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: almost everywhere
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

Scientific and/or common name: Suncus murinus (house shrew)
Target/host species or why a pest: destroys lizards, baby birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: many Marshalls atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: much of Micronesia
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

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Scientific and/or common name: Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit)
Target/host species or why a pest: destroys native birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: not reported
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: became problem on Laysan. Australia, other areas throughout the world
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

Scientific and/or common name: Canis familiaris (domestic dog)
Target/host species or why a pest: preys on marine birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: inhabited atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: cosmopolitan
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

Scientific and/or common name: Felis catus (domestic cat)
Target/host species or why a pest: destroys native birds
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: many atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: cosmopolitan
Control measures employed or suggested: removal, kept inside houses when pet

Scientific and/or common name: Sus scrofa (domestic pig)
Target/host species or why a pest: tramples surface of soil, may cause more extinctions than predation
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: inhabited atolls
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: cosmopolitan
Control measures employed or suggested: removal, restricted to pens

Scientific and/or common name: Capra hircus (domestic goat)
Target/host species or why a pest: tramples soil
Where in Marshalls it is causing harm: periodically introduced
Where in other nearby areas it is a pest: many locations
Control measures employed or suggested: removal

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REFERENCES

National Biodiversity Team of the RMI, 2000. The Marshall Islands - Living Atols Amidst the Living Sea/ The National Biodiversity Report of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. © RMI Biodiversity Project. ISBN 982-9045-02-1, St. Hildegard Publishing Company, Santa Clarita, CA, USA.

Apfelbaun, Steven 1., James P. Ludwig and Catherine E. Ludwig 1983. Ecological Problems Associated with Disruption of Dune Vegetation Dynamics by Casurina equisetifolia L. at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 261, pp. 1-19

Esguerra, Nelson M., Jackson A. Phillip and William S. William 1990. Survey of Pests of Crops in the Federated States of Micronesia. Extension Report No. 1. College of Micornesia, Land Grand Program, Kolonia, Pohnpei

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Fosberg, F. R(aymond) 1961b. Flora and Vegetation, in Blumenstock, David I. (ed.) A report on typhoon effects on Jaluit Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 75, pp. 51-55

Gillespie, Rosemary G. and Neil Reimer 1993. The Effect of Alien Predatory Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Hawaiian Endemic Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Pacific Science, Vol27, pp.21-33

Jackson, G. V. H. and R. Macfarlane 1992. Plant Production in Atolls of the Pacific, pp. 131-145. in Chase, Robert G. Review of Agricultural Development in the Atolls.

Lambert, Michel 1993. Giant African Snail. South Pacific Commision, Noumea, New Caledonia

Lobel, Phillip S. 1980. Invasion by the Mozambique Tilapia (Sarotherodon mossambicus; Piscis; Cichlidae) on a Pacific Atoll Marine Ecosystem. Micronesica, Vol. 16 (2), pp. 349-355

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McKenzie, E. H. C. 1991. Plants Diseases of Republic of the Marshall Islands. College of Micronesia, Land Grant Programs

Nafus, Donald M. 1996. An Insect Survey of the Marshal] Islands. Technical Paper, No. 208. South Pacific Commision, Noumea, New Caledonia

Schreiner, Use 1989. Biological Control Introductions in the Caroline and Marshall Islands. Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society, Vol 29, pp. 57-69

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. 1992a. Makmok - Notes on the occurence, utilisation, and importance of Polynesian Arrowroot [Tacca leontopetaloides) in the Marshall Islands. Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office, Majuro, Marshall Islands

Thaman, Randolf R. Lantana camara: Its Introduction, Dispersal and Impact on Islands of the Tropical Pacific Ocean Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 1976. Plant and Animal Quarantines and Regulations. Territorial Register, Vol. 2, No. 1

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Whistler, Art and Otto Steele, 1999. Botanical Survey ot Kwajelein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and The U.S. Army Environmental Center

Whistler, W. Arthur 1994. Wayside Plants of the Islands. Isle Botonica, Honolulu, Hawaii

Wright, Kevin M. 1993. The Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). Reptile & Amphibian Magazine, Jan./Feb. pp. 42-46

Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry -Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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personal communication: Goreau, Thomas


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